These are recommendations made by the United Family Healthcare Pharmacy Department using guidelines and recommendations issued by the World Health Organization, British National Formulary, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, as well as the package inserts for the individual vaccines.
Please make an appointment with your primary care doctor for further details and individualized instruction. Immunizations are not entirely without risk and all may have adverse effects. These risks should also be discussed with your doctor.
Children should receive other recommended vaccines as part of their routine childhood immunizations.
If traveling to other parts of the world, such as Africa, Southeast Asia, or Central and South America, other immunizations may be required. Malaria prophylaxis may also be indicated and vary according to where you plan to visit. You should also discuss this with your doctor.
Diphtheria is a respiratory disease caused by toxin-producing bacteria which can cause fatal airway obstruction if not treated. It is transmitted by person-to-person contact.
Tetanus is a neuromuscular illness caused by toxin-producing bacteria which can be fatal. Even small wounds are susceptible to tetanus spores. Most countries recommend this vaccine to everyone and most vaccinate all children.
Pertussis, a respiratory illness also known as whooping cough, is caused by toxin-producing bacteria which can be fatal. Because of a higher incidence of whooping cough in adolescents and adults, a booster is now recommended for this group.
DTaP: For children 6 weeks to 6 years old
Schedule: 5 shots
Tdap: For children 7 years old and adults
Schedule: One time booster after completion of primary vaccination series
Td: For children 7 years old and adults
Schedule: 1 shot every 10 years
Hepatitis A is a food and water borne viral illness that can cause reversible liver infection. It commonly affects travelers worldwide.
Hep A: For children over 1 year old and adults
Schedule: 2 shots 6 to 12 months apart
*Available combined with the Hepatitis B vaccine
Hepatitis B is a blood borne viral infection that occasionally leads to chronic infection of the liver which can cause liver cancer and cirrhosis. Hepatitis B is endemic in many parts of Asia.
Hep B: For children beginning at birth and adults
Schedule: 3 shots: day 0, 1 month, and 6 months
*Available combined with the Hepatitis A vaccine
Haemophilus Influenzae B
Hib is a potentially serious bacterial infection that can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, and epiglottitis. It usually affects children less than 5 years old. It spreads person to person via respiratory droplets.
Hib: For children 2 months to 5 years old
Schedule: 4 shots
Influenza is a contagious respiratory virus that is spread person to person. The peak season is winter months. It is usually a self-limiting infection that lasts about 7 days but may lead to pneumonia and even death in those at high risk.
Influenza: For children 6 months to 18 years old, persons 50 years and older, pregnant women, people of any age with chronic medical conditions, healthcare workers, household contacts or caregivers of children less than 6 months of age and of those persons at high risk for complications from the flu.
*For those children less than 9 years old who are receiving the flu vaccine for the first time, 2 flu shots spaced at least 4 weeks apart is necessary.
Japanese Encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral illness which can cause encephalitis or inflammation of the brain leading to brain dysfunction or death. The peak season in Shanghai is from May to September. The season for the rest of China and Southeast Asia varies according to each region.
JE (live-attenuated vaccine): For children beginning at 6 months old and adults
Schedule: 1 shot (schedule varies for inactive JE vaccine)
A group of viral illnesses associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Complications include pneumonia, meningitis, deafness and miscarriage for pregnant women. These diseases are spread person to person via respiratory droplets.
MMR: For children beginning at 1 year old and adults
Schedule: 2 shots
Meningococcal disease is caused by bacteria and can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death. It is spread via direct close contact via respiratory droplets.
Meningococcal: For children 2 years and older
Schedule: 1 shot
Polio is a viral illness which can lead to paralysis of limbs. Parts of the world still have polio and because of travel, immunization is still recommended in children and adults. It is spread via oral-fecal contact.
IPV: For children beginning at 6 weeks old and adults
Schedule: 4-5 doses beginning at 6 weeks old
Booster: Every 10 years
Pneumococcal is a bacterial disease that can cause meningitis and pneumonia. It is spread person to person contact via respiratory droplets or oral contact and is a major cause of mortality worldwide.
Pneumococcal: For children 6 weeks to 5 years old; for adults 65 years and older or in younger immunocompromised persons such as those with sickle cell anemia, asplenia, cardiopulmonary disease, diabetics and chronic liver disease.
Schedule: 3-4 doses (children); 1 dose for adults 65+
Booster: In 5 years for those less than 65 years old
TB, caused by a mycobacteria, is primarily an illness of the respiratory system. It is spread person to person via respiratory droplets (via coughing or sneezing). One third of all new cases in the world are from China and India.
BCG: For children beginning at birth (PPD test required before BCG if living in China > 3 months)
Rabies is a viral illness which is transmitted by infected saliva from animals such as dogs, cats, bats, and monkeys through bites or scratches. If contracted and no previous or immediate vaccination is given, rabies is usually fatal. Effective treatment within a few days after exposure to rabies can prevent the onset of symptoms and death. Rabies is endemic in China.
Pre-exposure: Rabies vaccine for prevention of infection before exposure
Schedule: 3 doses: day 0, 7 days, and 21 or 28 days
Booster: Consider booster in 3 years if high risk; usually not recommended for international travelers.
Post-exposure: If exposed and no previous vaccines, 4-5 doses of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin advised.
Varicella is a highly contagious viral illness that is otherwise known as chicken pox. It is spread person to person via respiratory droplets or via contact of the fluid from the blisters.
Varicella: 2 doses for children beginning at 1 year of age
Schedule: 2 shots